Category Archives: Notes

Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC)

Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) is composed of the Prime Minister (as its chairman) and the Minister of Home Affairs only. Its recommends the President regarding appointments to the rank of Joint Secretary and above in the Government of India. The clearance by the ACC is also required for appointments to top management posts in the Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) – for this the ACC takes recommendations from the Public Enterprises Selection Board (PESB).

Child Labour

Child labour is the practice of having children engage in economic activity, on a part-time or full-time basis, in a manner that deprives them of their childhood, and is harmful to their physical and mental development. As per sociological evidence, child labour exists in India primarily in the agriculture sector – in the form of debt bondage, wherein the children work in the creditor’s farms to service the repayment conditions of the loan taken by their parents.

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Child rights – Laws and Organisations – RTE, 86th amendment, POCSO Act, NCPCR, UNICEF, ASER Report

Legislative framework governing child rights:

Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 2016 (amendment of the 1986 act)

As per the law, a child is defined as a person below 18 years of age. Children below 14 years of age are prohibited from working in all occupations, except: helping in non-hazardous family business, and child artists in entertainment industry and sports. Children between 14 to 18 years of age (also called adolescents) are prohibited from working in hazardous occupations. Violation of the law by an employer can invite imprisonment for a term of 6 months to 2 years.

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Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD)

Ministry of Rural Development is the nodal ministry for development and welfare activities in the rural India. It deals with wide variety of matters concerning rural areas including health, education, drinking water, housing, roads, and livelihood promotion.

Rural development is a State subject, thus schemes of rural development are implemented through the state governments and associated agencies while the Ministry of Rural Development provides them with funds, guidelines, and technical support.

See the history and evolution of the Ministry of Rural Development on the official website, here.


  • Department of Rural Development
  • Department of Land Resources
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How can negative emission technologies help us reduce global warming? – Carbon sequestration : natural and artificial

Carbon sequestration is the process of capture of CO2 from the atmosphere, and its long-term storage in plants (through photosynthesis), soil, geologic formations (as calcium carbonate), and ocean. This process can be physical, chemical, or biological (biosequestration) in nature.

Oceans are the largest sink for atmospheric carbon. Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere dissolves into surface water of ocean, where it is utilised by marine plants (phytoplanktons) that turn it into organic matter through the process of photosynthesis. Many organisms in ocean convert CO2 into calcium carbonate – which becomes the building material for their shells and skeletons.

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Black Money, Money Laundering, Tax evasion – Administrative and legal infrastructure to tackle them – GAAR, PMLA, FIU, ED, FATF

Black money is the money that is unaccounted for, wherein taxes have not been paid on that money. Sources of black money are often illegal, such as crime – trafficking, illegal trade, fraud – and corruption -bribery, leakages from government programmes; but the source of black money can be legal too. To be black, a money just has to be unaccounted for, and untaxed.

Some black money, especially in the poor classes, is unavoidable in any economy. The black money which the government agencies target is that associated with tax evasion and illicit organised crime such as human trafficking. Legal definitions of black money may vary, for example, under the Black Money Act 2015, the term ‘black money’ covers only the ‘undisclosed foreign income and assets’.

Money laundering is the process wherein proceeds of crime are converted into legal money or asset in order to obscure its origin.

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Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (MoAFW)

The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (MoAFW) is the apex body for agriculture sector. It supports agricultural research and education, and implements related schemes through the state governments as agriculture is a state subject.


  • Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare
  • Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying
  • Department of Fisheries
  • Department of Agricultural Research and Education
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